- Issue Time
- Jul 7,2022
One of the key concepts of electronics is the printed circuit board or PCB. It is so basic that people often forget to explain what a PCB is and how it works. This tutorial will detail how a PCB works.
Technology is one of the most profound human inventions, and it has changed every aspect of our lives. History is a powerful testament to this fact. We have come a long way from the beginning of the "Paleolithic" to today's "Modern Age". The "evolution of technology" is a journey through which our society and culture have developed since the discovery of fire, and has been an important catalyst in shaping the way we live, behave and think. Our technological development has gone through many stages that have so far brought us to our current state of comfort and convenience.
But looking down the history, this comfortable lifestyle might not have been possible without circuit boards. This means that our world would be very different if we lived without circuit boards. From communications to entertainment technology, from defense to transportation to health, education, and every aspect of our lives, circuit boards play a vital role in modern life. These little boards are not only at the heart of every electronic device but play a dynamic role in every industry that relies on or is defined by technology.
How do the pcb boards work?
Circuit board technology was born in the age of steam, and its impact on human life has never been greater than it is today.
Circuits may sound complicated, but in simple terms, circuits translate electronic commands into mechanical actions—such as motors or lights. In the earliest days of our technology's existence, the circuits were very simple. However, with the advancement of science and the advent of inventions, this all changed. Our technical vocabulary grew and we learned how to use many other words such as "hardware", "software", "cache", "emulation" and most importantly "electronics". The job of electronics is to convert information from one form to another and simplify the process of using multiple points at a time to perform a single function. Circuit boards allow us to do this over time.
Understand electronic circuits
To understand electronic circuits, we need a brief understanding of how they work. Everything electricians know, all their rules (based on theory), are broken down into the four fundamental laws of charge transfer.
First and foremost is the principle of continuity - the flow of energy between two points.
Second, we have the principle of conservation of charge - the total charge is constant.
Third, we have the principle of charge freedom - charges can be added and removed from a material. Finally, we have the principle of energy transfer - charge can transfer energy. These fundamental laws are the basis of every circuit we know, and explain the simple principles we discussed earlier.
Any circuit consists of three parts. There is a power supply, and from this power supply, there are two wires. Follow the wire and you'll encounter a resistive load; this load is what we normally see powering circuits - motors, lights, etc. Essentially, a circuit consists of conductors, wire in the case of copper, copper, and plastic in the case of a PCB, a load, and a switch. Also, in the power circuit, there is a switch.
The first law of electricity is the principle of continuity. Current follows the path of least resistance; if there is only one wire, there is no easier path for the current to flow than the path. This means that the current goes through the entire wire and leaves the other end. This is called a "continuous" or "fixed" circuit.
More complex circuits currently take more than one path, and this is where the laws of electricity become very important. The current in any circuit can be limited so that only a specific amount of current is delivered.
The conservation principle tells us a simple answer - the wire must carry this amount to create a continuous short circuit. This is called "partial pressure". We can also place impurities in metals to act as resistors. This allows the voltage to pass, but only through a certain point, which creates a "closed" circuit when the impurities prevent the current from reaching the end of the wire. In a closed circuit, the current changes direction but the voltage remains the same.
Circuits can be used to carry large amounts of power. The process of "dividing the voltage" makes it safe because only a portion of the electricity is working through the wire at any given time. Also, if there is any interruption in the circuit, no power reaches the load. It is also important to note that in all types of circuits the current flow is limited. This limits how long a circuit can be connected, and circuits designed to be hardwired have a maximum length that can be connected.
The last process is the generation of closed loops. This is called the energy transfer principle, and it's a tiny variation of the continuity principle. If the wire loop is formed correctly, the current will flow continuously through the loop. Energy can be converted into heat and other utilities -- like in an electric toaster -- so that the wires themselves retain a lot of energy.
This principle also explains why this energy can be transferred back through wires. This happens in a process similar to the principle of continuity. So far we have only discussed resistance in metal wires, but resistors made of solid materials such as glass can also be used. Each one has a different resistance, and according to the principle of continuity, current can flow through the wire. Even though the wire may not be able to perform the desired task, under the right conditions it may be used to create another effect. The invention of graphite and carbon fiber has revolutionized the way we transfer energy from one place to another, and they are now used in computer circuit boards.
The above describes the working principle of the PCB board in detail. If you want to buy a PCB board, please contact us.
SINGO is a professional custom PCB board manufacturer. Our manufacturing facility includes a clean room and an advanced high-speed SMT line (Yamaha), a fully automatic printing press, lead-free wave soldering, and a fully automatic assembly line. Our die attaches accuracy can reach ±0.03mm on IC parts. This means we can handle almost all types of ICs such as SO, SOP, SOJ, TSOP, TSSOP, QFP, GA, and U-BGA. We not only have strong OEM manufacturing capabilities and engineering support, but also have excellent experience in R&D, manufacturing, and maintenance testing.